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Taken together, such statistics can be used to paint a picture of a market so frothy that investors are willing to disregard any qualms over credit risk. Average leverage across the 10 largest hedge funds clocked in at While that figure is down from a peak of That number dwarfs the amount of leverage Hwang was operating with. For example, concentrating a smaller amount of leverage to handful of stocks is much riskier than putting a bigger amount of borrowed money in instruments like Treasuries or currencies, he said. The Dow ended higher, with shares of planemaker Boeing Co rising 2.

Nomura and Credit Suisse are facing billions of dollars in losses after a U. Ceramics, make-up and furniture could be hit amid a row over a new UK tax on tech firms. Bloomberg -- Cathie Wood has spent months defending Ark Investment Management from critics who say the money manager has too much cash tied up in too few stocks. In a filing late last week, Ark altered the prospectuses for its exchange-traded funds to remove clauses limiting its exposure and concentration risks.

These are eye-catching changes for Ark, founded by Wood in Ark invests in companies involved with disruptive trends, which mean it has a limited pool of targets in which to deploy that money. In addition to deleting the general limits, the March 26 filing removed caps on ownership of depositary receipts, rights, warrants, preferred securities and convertibles. Updates with ARKX fund information in final paragraphs, analyst comment For more articles like this, please visit us at bloomberg. The Dow was higher, with shares of planemaker Boeing Co up 1.

Bloomberg Markets -- It was a bleak moment for the oil industry. Petrostates were on the brink of bankruptcy. Texas roughnecks and Kuwaiti princes alike had watched helplessly for months as the commodity that was their lifeblood tumbled to prices that had until recently seemed unthinkable.

It was January Bob Dudley had been at the helm of BP Plc for six years. He ought to have had as much reason to panic as anyone in the rest of his industry.

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The unflashy American had been predicting lower prices for months. He was being proved right, though that was hardly a reason to celebrate. Unlike most of his peers, Dudley was no passive observer. At the heart of BP, far removed from the sprawling network of oil fields, refineries, and service stations that the company is known for, sits a vast trading unit, combining the logistical prowess of an air traffic control center with the master-of-the-universe swagger of a macro hedge fund.

Oil prices had been under pressure ever since Saudi Arabia launched a price war against U. It was a nadir that would be reached again only in March , when the Saudis launched another price war, this time targeting Russia, just as the coronavirus pandemic sapped global demand. Wearing a dark suit and blue tie, the BP chief executive officer made his way through the snowy streets. After one meeting, he was asked—as usual—for his oil forecast by a gaggle of journalists. And, in complete secrecy, the company was putting money behind its conviction. Shortly before flying to Davos, Dudley had authorized a daring trade: BP would place a large bet on a rebound in oil prices.


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Although its stock is in the FTSE index and owned by almost every British pension fund, this wager, worth hundreds of millions of dollars, has remained a closely guarded secret until now. BP was already heavily exposed to the price of oil. What the traders wanted to do was double down, to increase the exposure by buying futures contracts much as a hedge fund would.

And Dudley agreed. Quietly, BP bought Brent crude futures traded in London. The optimistic coda Dudley attached to his catchphrase in Davos proved prescient. Bloomberg Markets pieced together the story of these lucrative but secretive operations through interviews with more than two dozen current and former traders and executives, some of which were conducted for The World for Sale, our new book on the history of commodity trading.

The oil majors trade in physical energy markets, buying tankers of crude, gasoline, and diesel.

And they do the same in natural gas and power markets via pipelines and electricity grids. But they do more than that: They also speculate in financial markets, buying and selling futures, options, and other financial derivatives in energy markets and beyond—from corn to metals—and closing deals with hedge funds, private equity firms, and investment banks.

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As little known as their trading is to the outside world, BP, Shell, and Total see it as the heart of their business. In years of low prices, like or , trading profits can far exceed those of the production business. One reason profits are so high is because the three companies can reduce their trading tax bill by routing their business through low-tax jurisdictions—a strategy not available to their oil pumping and refining businesses, which are rooted in physical infrastructure in particular countries.

Shell, for example, concentrates all its trading of West African and Latin American crude via a subsidiary in the Bahamas. Even better for the trio, trading profits tend to soar when markets are oversupplied, as was the case in and again in , helping to cushion the blow of low prices on the traditional business of pumping and refining oil. Trading also gives them an edge over their U. For most shareholders, however, the trading business is a black box.

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Together the three companies trade almost 30 million barrels a day of oil and other petroleum products, equal to the daily production of the entire OPEC cartel. Shell alone trades about 12 million barrels a day. The paper volumes are much larger. Total, for example, trades 6. With trading comes risk. There are very few risk-free trades. BP, Shell, and Total declined to comment for this article.

Then, in the first half of the 20th century, oil trading simply ceased to exist as the biggest producers squeezed others out of the picture. A few large companies came to dominate the industry, underpinned by their agreements to divvy up the oil resources of the Middle East. BP was emblematic of the era. Already early traders such as Marc Rich, who founded the company that is today Glencore, were finding ways to trade oil outside the control of the Seven Sisters on the nascent spot market. The big oil companies regarded trading as beneath them and looked down on the upstarts, but they would soon be forced to think differently.

The Iranian revolution of at a stroke dispossessed BP of much of its oil production.

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The company was forced to turn to the spot market that it had long disdained to buy the oil its refineries needed. Soon BP was doing much more than just buying oil for its own refineries. Retrieved January 13, Archived from the original on Bloomberg Businessweek. Vanity Fair. Business Insider. Retrieved 28 November The New York Times. The Mat. USA Wrestling.

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ISBN In late February, the "Ethereum killer" became the third-largest cryptocurrency but, since then, it ceded ground to Binance Coin BNB , currently sitting in fourth place. Yet, the cryptocurrency's critics—whose ranks include both Bitcoin and Ethereum maximalists—do not pull punches, calling the token "the most expensive vaporware ever made" because of its apparent lack of use cases and its developers' failure to deliver smart contracts.

Alex Dovbnya aka AlexMorris is a cryptocurrency expert, trader and journalist with extensive experience of covering everything related to the burgeoning industry — from price analysis to Blockchain disruption. Alex authored more than 1, stories for U.